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SAP Performance Optimization Guide: Analyzing and Tuning SAP Systems (7th Edition)

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Product Details

ISBN:
978-1-59229-874-7
Author:
Thomas Schneider
Type:
Hardcover, 825 pages
Year:
2013

Product Description and Table of Contents

• Make your SAP system run quickly and efficiently
• Master core concepts like sizing, memory management, and database monitoring
• Explore new topics such as SAP HANA, SAP Sybase ASE, and innovations in SAP NetWeaver AS Java
• 7th Edition Updated for SAP NetWeaver 7. 3

In today’s high-stakes business environment, system performance is the king of the jungle. From system and load distribution, to memory management, to buffering and locks, you know there’s a lot of ground to cover—and many pitfalls to avoid. Up to date for SAP NetWeaver 7.3, this authoritative guide to analysis and tuning offers the practical tips and real-world examples to reach your tuning potential day in and day out. Anticipate, identify, analyze, and solve performance problems to keep your SAP system on top.

SAP Basis
Get complete coverage of the SAP Basis hardware, database, memory configuration, and work processes to maximize system analysis and tuning.

Analysis Tools
Explore the analysis and tuning tools integrated with SAP NetWeaver 7.3 and get previews of version 7.4.

Everything Java
Learn to evaluate CPU performance and available memory, use the SAP Management Console, and clear memory with garbage collection in the SAP Java Virtual Machine.

Databases and SQL Processing
From SAP MaxDB to DB2 to SAP Sybase ASE, find the most important information about database monitoring and optimizing SQL statements.

Performance Optimization with SAP HANA
Make your SAP system faster, sleeker, and stronger with new SAP HANA technologies like in-memory and column-based data storage.

Highlights

• SAP NetWeaver AS ABAP and Java
• Performance problem troubleshooting
• Workload analysis
• Remote function calls
• Memory configuration
• SQL statements, locks, and buffering
• System architecture
• SAP NetWeaver BW and queries
• SAP Java Virtual Machine
• Hardware sizing and system distribution
• Main memory data with TREX and
• SAP HANA
• SAP Sybase ASE

The Author

Dr. Thomas Schneider started his career at SAP AG in 1996. He has been the architect responsible for Partner Development Infrastructure in the SAP Cloud organization since 2009.

Table of Contents

  • ... Preface and Acknowledgments ... 17
  • ... Introduction ... 19
  • 1 ... Performance Management of an SAP Solution ... 33
  • 1.1 ... SAP Solution Architecture ... 34
  • 1.1.1 ... SAP Solutions and SAP Components ... 34
  • 1.1.2 ... Client/Server Architecture ... 38
  • 1.2 ... Monitoring and Optimization Plan for an SAP Solution ... 47
  • 1.2.1 ... Requirements of a Monitoring and Optimization Plan ... 47
  • 1.2.2 ... Service-Level Management ... 51
  • 1.2.3 ... Plan for Continuous Performance Optimization ... 57
  • 1.2.4 ... Tools and Methods for the Monitoring and Optimization Plan ... 63
  • 1.2.5 ... SAP Solution Manager ... 66
  • 1.3 ... Summary ... 71
  • 2 ... Analysis of Hardware, Database, and ABAP Application Server ... 75
  • 2.1 ... Basic Terms ... 76
  • 2.2 ... Hardware Monitoring ... 77
  • 2.2.1 ... Analysis of a Hardware Bottleneck (CPU and Main Memory) ... 79
  • 2.2.2 ... Identifying Read/Write (I/O) Problems ... 86
  • 2.2.3 ... Further Analysis at the Operating System Level ... 87
  • 2.3 ... Database Monitoring ... 89
  • 2.3.1 ... The Performance Monitor in the DBA Cockpit ... 90
  • 2.3.2 ... Analyzing the Database Buffer ... 91
  • 2.3.3 ... Identifying Expensive SQL Statements ... 95
  • 2.3.4 ... Identifying Read/Write (I/O) Problems ... 102
  • 2.3.5 ... Other Database Checks ... 104
  • 2.4 ... Analyzing SAP Memory Configuration ... 112
  • 2.4.1 ... Analyzing SAP Buffers ... 113
  • 2.4.2 ... Analyzing SAP Extended Memory, SAP Heap Memory, and SAP Roll Memory ... 115
  • 2.4.3 ... Displaying Allocated Memory ... 117
  • 2.4.4 ... Other Monitors for Detailed Analysis ... 119
  • 2.5 ... Analyzing SAP Work Processes ... 121
  • 2.5.1 ... Work Process Overview Fields ... 122
  • 2.5.2 ... Analyzing Work Processes ... 125
  • 2.5.3 ... System-Wide Work Process Overview ... 128
  • 2.5.4 ... Monitoring the Dispatcher Queue ... 130
  • 2.6 ... Analysis of the Internet Communication Manager (ICM) ... 133
  • 2.7 ... Continuous Monitoring Using CCMS ... 134
  • 2.7.1 ... Working with the Alert Monitor ... 135
  • 2.7.2 ... Arranging Monitoring Tree ... 138
  • 2.7.3 ... Arranging Automatic Alert Messaging ... 141
  • 2.7.4 ... Graphical User Interface in SAP Solution Manager ... 142
  • 2.8 ... Summary ... 143
  • 3 ... Workload Analysis ... 145
  • 3.1 ... Basics of Workload Analysis and Runtime Analysis ... 146
  • 3.2 ... Workload Monitor ... 148
  • 3.2.1 ... Working with the Workload Monitor ... 149
  • 3.2.2 ... Technical Settings for the Workload Monitor ... 152
  • 3.3 ... Workload Analysis ... 152
  • 3.3.1 ... Transaction Step Cycle ... 153
  • 3.3.2 ... Other Time Components ... 155
  • 3.3.3 ... Interpreting Response Times ... 156
  • 3.3.4 ... Activity, Throughput, and Load ... 159
  • 3.4 ... Performing Workload Analyses ... 161
  • 3.4.1 ... Analyzing General Performance Problems ... 162
  • 3.4.2 ... Analyzing Specific Performance Problems ... 169
  • 3.5 ... End-to-End Workload Analysis ... 172
  • 3.5.1 ... Basics of End-to-End Workload Analysis ... 173
  • 3.5.2 ... Central Workload Monitor ... 174
  • 3.5.3 ... Working with the Central Workload Monitor ... 175
  • 3.5.4 ... End-to-End Workload Monitor in SAP Solution Manager ... 178
  • 3.6 ... Summary ... 179
  • 4 ... Identifying Performance Problems in ABAP Programs ... 183
  • 4.1 ... Single-Record Statistics ... 183
  • 4.2 ... Performance Trace ... 188
  • 4.2.1 ... Activating a Performance Trace ... 188
  • 4.2.2 ... Evaluating an SQL Trace ... 190
  • 4.2.3 ... Other Functions in the SQL Trace ... 195
  • 4.2.4 ... Evaluating a Buffer Trace ... 197
  • 4.2.5 ... Evaluating an RFC Trace ... 198
  • 4.2.6 ... Evaluating an HTTP Trace ... 199
  • 4.2.7 ... Evaluating an Enqueue Trace ... 199
  • 4.3 ... Performance Analysis with ABAP Trace (Runtime Analysis) ... 201
  • 4.3.1 ... Activating an ABAP Trace ... 201
  • 4.3.2 ... Evaluating an ABAP Trace ... 203
  • 4.3.3 ... Using Function Variations ... 205
  • 4.3.4 ... Outlook: Single Transaction Analysis ... 207
  • 4.3.5 ... Using Single Transaction Analysis ... 209
  • 4.4 ... Analyzing Memory Usage with ABAP Debugger and in the Memory Inspector ... 210
  • 4.5 ... Code Inspector ... 216
  • 4.6 ... Central Single Statistics Records ... 218
  • 4.7 ... End-to-End Runtime Analysis in SAP Solution Manager ... 220
  • 4.7.1 ... Activating the Runtime Analysis ... 221
  • 4.7.2 ... Displaying an End-to-End Runtime Analysis in SAP Solution Manager ... 223
  • 4.8 ... Summary ... 225
  • 5 ... Hardware Sizing and System and Load Distribution ... 229
  • 5.1 ... Initial Hardware Sizing ... 231
  • 5.1.1 ... Overview of the Project for Initial Sizing ... 232
  • 5.1.2 ... Performing a Sizing Project in Detail ... 238
  • 5.1.3 ... SAP Standard Application Benchmarks ... 242
  • 5.2 ... Sizing to Deal with Increased Workload, Change of Release, or Migration ... 247
  • 5.2.1 ... Overview of a Sizing Project in the Environment of an Installation that is Already Used ... 247
  • 5.2.2 ... Performing Sizing in the Environment of Installations Used in Production ... 248
  • 5.3 ... Planning the System Landscape ... 256
  • 5.3.1 ... Distribution of SAP Application Instances ... 257
  • 5.3.2 ... Hardware Consolidation ... 258
  • 5.3.3 ... System and Database Consolidation ... 260
  • 5.4 ... Services of the SAP NetWeaver Application Server ... 262
  • 5.5 ... Summary ... 266
  • 6 ... Memory Management ... 269
  • 6.1 ... Memory Management Fundamentals ... 270
  • 6.1.1 ... Basic Terms ... 270
  • 6.1.2 ... SAP Roll Memory, SAP Extended Memory, and SAP Heap Memory ... 272
  • 6.1.3 ... SAP Extended Shared Memory and SAP Paging Memory ... 279
  • 6.2 ... Features of Operating Systems ... 280
  • 6.2.1 ... Zero Administration Memory Management for Microsoft Windows ... 280
  • 6.2.2 ... Memory Management for Linux ... 281
  • 6.2.3 ... Memory Management for IBM i ... 282
  • 6.3 ... Configuring and Monitoring Memory Areas ... 283
  • 6.3.1 ... Monitoring Swap Space ... 285
  • 6.3.2 ... Configuring and Monitoring SAP Memory Areas ... 287
  • 6.3.3 ... Assistance with Troubleshooting ... 291
  • 6.4 ... Summary ... 298
  • 7 ... Load Distribution and Remote Function Calls ... 301
  • 7.1 ... Load Distribution within the ABAP Instances ... 302
  • 7.1.1 ... Distributing Message, Enqueue, and ATP Services ... 303
  • 7.1.2 ... Distributing Dialog, Background, and Spool Work Processes ... 304
  • 7.1.3 ... Distributing Users and Work Processes over CPU Resources ... 305
  • 7.1.4 ... Dynamic User Distribution: Configuring Logon Groups ... 308
  • 7.1.5 ... Limiting Resources per User ... 311
  • 7.1.6 ... Operation Modes ... 312
  • 7.1.7 ... Configuring Dynamic Work Processes ... 312
  • 7.1.8 ... Update ... 313
  • 7.2 ... Remote Function Calls (RFCs) ... 320
  • 7.2.1 ... Fundamentals and Concepts ... 320
  • 7.2.2 ... RFC Cycle ... 323
  • 7.2.3 ... Configuring and Testing RFC Destinations ... 326
  • 7.2.4 ... Monitoring Inbound and Outbound Loads ... 330
  • 7.2.5 ... Configuring Parallel Processes with Asynchronous RFCs ... 335
  • 7.2.6 ... Monitoring Data Transfer with Transactional RFCs ... 336
  • 7.2.7 ... Background RFCs ... 338
  • 7.3 ... New Load Distribution Concept ... 338
  • 7.4 ... SAP Virtual Machine Container ... 341
  • 7.5 ... Summary ... 343
  • 8 ... SAP GUI and Internet Connection ... 347
  • 8.1 ... SAP GUI ... 348
  • 8.1.1 ... Interaction Model and Performance Measurement ... 348
  • 8.1.2 ... Analyzing and Optimizing the Performance of GUI Communication ... 350
  • 8.2 ... SAP Web Applications ... 356
  • 8.2.1 ... Planning the Use of Web UI and the SAP GUI ... 357
  • 8.2.2 ... HTTP Trace in the Internet Communication Manager ... 359
  • 8.3 ... Analyses on the Presentation Server ... 360
  • 8.3.1 ... Presentation Server Trace for Web Applications ... 362
  • 8.3.2 ... Operating System Performance Tools ... 364
  • 8.3.3 ... Continuously Monitoring Web Applications ... 365
  • 8.4 ... Business Server Pages (BSPs), Web Dynpro ABAP, and Integrated ITS ... 367
  • 8.4.1 ... Fundamentals of Business Server Pages and Web Dynpro ABAP ... 367
  • 8.4.2 ... Fundamentals of the Integrated ITS ... 370
  • 8.4.3 ... Fundamentals of ABAP Web Services ... 372
  • 8.4.4 ... Performing the Performance Analysis of ABAP Web Services, BSPs, Web Dynpro ABAP, and ITS Applications ... 373
  • 8.4.5 ... Monitoring Web Service Calls ... 376
  • 8.5 ... Summary ... 376
  • 9 ... Locks ... 381
  • 9.1 ... Lock Concepts of Database System and SAP System ... 382
  • 9.1.1 ... Database Locks ... 382
  • 9.1.2 ... SAP Enqueues ... 383
  • 9.2 ... Monitoring Locks ... 385
  • 9.2.1 ... Database Locks ... 385
  • 9.2.2 ... SAP Enqueues ... 389
  • 9.3 ... Number Range Buffering ... 391
  • 9.3.1 ... Fundamentals ... 391
  • 9.3.2 ... Activating Number Range Buffering ... 396
  • 9.3.3 ... Monitoring Number Range Buffering ... 397
  • 9.4 ... Locking with Quantities and ATP Server ... 398
  • 9.4.1 ... Fundamentals ... 399
  • 9.4.2 ... Configuring the ATP Server ... 400
  • 9.4.3 ... Monitoring the ATP Server ... 403
  • 9.5 ... Summary ... 404
  • 10 ... Optimizing Java Virtual Machine and Java Programs ... 407
  • 10.1 ... Garbage Collection ... 409
  • 10.1.1 ... Construction of the Java Heap ... 409
  • 10.1.2 ... Garbage Collection Algorithms ... 411
  • 10.1.3 ... Selection of Collectors ... 412
  • 10.1.4 ... Parameterization of Java Heap Memory and Garbage Collection ... 413
  • 10.1.5 ... Logging Garbage Collections ... 415
  • 10.2 ... Just-in-Time Compiler ... 415
  • 10.3 ... SAP Management Console ... 417
  • 10.4 ... SAP Java Virtual Machine Profiler ... 419
  • 10.4.1 ... Architecture ... 419
  • 10.4.2 ... Establishing the Connection ... 421
  • 10.4.3 ... Allocation Analysis ... 424
  • 10.4.4 ... Performance HotSpot Analysis ... 430
  • 10.4.5 ... Method Parameter Analysis ... 434
  • 10.4.6 ... Synchronization Analysis ... 436
  • 10.4.7 ... File and Network I/O Analysis ... 439
  • 10.4.8 ... Garbage Collection Analysis ... 441
  • 10.4.9 ... Class Statistics and Heap Dump ... 444
  • 10.5 ... Memory Analyzer ... 446
  • 10.5.1 ... Creating HPROF Files ... 447
  • 10.5.2 ... Analysis of the Java Heap with the Memory Analyzer ... 447
  • 10.6 ... Local Database Monitors and SQL Trace in SAP NetWeaver AS Java ... 450
  • 10.7 ... Java Workload and Runtime Analysis with CA Wily Introscope ... 452
  • 10.7.1 ... Functionality of Introscope ... 453
  • 10.7.2 ... Working with WebView and the Wily Introscope Workstation ... 454
  • 10.7.3 ... Introscope Trace ... 456
  • 10.8 ... Summary ... 456
  • 11 ... Optimizing SQL Statements ... 461
  • 11.1 ... Identifying and Analyzing Expensive SQL Statements ... 462
  • 11.1.1 ... Preliminary Analysis ... 463
  • 11.1.2 ... Detailed Analysis ... 465
  • 11.2 ... Optimizing SQL Statements through Secondary Indexes ... 469
  • 11.2.1 ... Database Organization Fundamentals ... 470
  • 11.2.2 ... Administration for Indexes and Table Access Statistics ... 480
  • 11.2.3 ... Rules for Creating or Changing Secondary Indexes ... 487
  • 11.3 ... Optimizing SQL Statements in the ABAP Program ... 495
  • 11.3.1 ... Rules for Efficient SQL Programming ... 496
  • 11.3.2 ... Example of Optimizing an SQL Statement in an ABAP Program ... 501
  • 11.3.3 ... Presetting Field Values in Report Transactions ... 511
  • 11.4 ... Expensive SQL Statements Due to Incorrect Buffer Settings and Administration Tools ... 515
  • 11.5 ... Summary ... 517
  • 12 ... SAP Buffering ... 521
  • 12.1 ... Table Buffering Fundamentals ... 523
  • 12.1.1 ... Buffering Types ... 523
  • 12.1.2 ... Buffer Accessing ... 526
  • 12.1.3 ... Buffer Synchronization ... 528
  • 12.1.4 ... Activating Buffering ... 531
  • 12.1.5 ... Which Tables Should Be Buffered? ... 533
  • 12.2 ... Monitoring Table Buffering on the ABAP Server ... 535
  • 12.2.1 ... Table Access Statistics ... 536
  • 12.2.2 ... Analyzing Buffered Tables ... 540
  • 12.2.3 ... Analyzing Tables That Are Currently Not Buffered ... 544
  • 12.2.4 ... Detailed Table Analysis ... 546
  • 12.2.5 ... Monitoring Buffer Synchronization (DDLOG Entries) ... 549
  • 12.2.6 ... SQL Statistics and SQL Trace ... 550
  • 12.3 ... Monitoring Object-Oriented Application Buffers ... 551
  • 12.4 ... Monitoring Table Buffering on the SAP NetWeaver AS Java ... 556
  • 12.5 ... Summary ... 558
  • 13 ... Optimizing Queries in SAP NetWeaver Business Warehouse ... 561
  • 13.1 ... Fundamentals of SAP NetWeaver Business Warehouse ... 562
  • 13.1.1 ... Overview of the Most Important Concepts in SAP NetWeaver BW ... 563
  • 13.1.2 ... InfoCube and Extended Star Schema ... 566
  • 13.1.3 ... Overview of the Options for Performance Optimization ... 574
  • 13.1.4 ... Overview of the SAP NetWeaver BW Administration Tools ... 578
  • 13.2 ... Analysis of Expensive BW Queries ... 580
  • 13.3 ... Technical Optimization Options in Detail ... 586
  • 13.3.1 ... Managing Indexing ... 588
  • 13.3.2 ... Settings on the Data Selection ... 594
  • 13.3.3 ... Compressing the Fact Table ... 595
  • 13.3.4 ... Monitoring the OLAP Cache ... 596
  • 13.3.5 ... Pre-calculation of Reports ... 601
  • 13.3.6 ... Aggregates ... 603
  • 13.4 ... Summary ... 612
  • 14 ... Optimizing Search Queries Using TREX ... 615
  • 14.1 ... Fundamentals and Architecture of TREX Considering Performance Aspects ... 616
  • 14.1.1 ... TREX Application Scenarios and Search Functions ... 617
  • 14.1.2 ... Architecture of TREX ... 620
  • 14.1.3 ... Specific Characteristics of the SAP NetWeaver BW Accelerator ... 624
  • 14.1.4 ... Overview of TREX Administration Tools ... 626
  • 14.2 ... Implementing the Performance Analysis on TREX ... 628
  • 14.2.1 ... Monitoring the Utilization of the TREX Servers ... 628
  • 14.2.2 ... Creating and Evaluating the Python Trace ... 634
  • 14.2.3 ... Creating and Evaluating a Performance Trace ... 635
  • 14.3 ... Technical Optimization Options in Detail ... 636
  • 14.3.1 ... Dividing Indexes ... 637
  • 14.3.2 ... Reorganizing TREX ... 638
  • 14.3.3 ... Using Delta Indexes ... 639
  • 14.3.4 ... Using Master and Slave Index Servers ... 642
  • 14.3.5 ... Configuring Queue Servers ... 645
  • 14.3.6 ... Distributing the Preprocessing (Configuring the Preprocessor) ... 648
  • 14.3.7 ... Increase the Number of RFC Connections between the ABAP System and TREX ... 650
  • 14.4 ... Indexing InfoCubes in the BWA ... 650
  • 14.5 ... Summary ... 656
  • 15 ... Optimizing Database Queries with SAP HANA ... 659
  • 15.1 ... Application Scenarios for SAP HANA ... 661
  • 15.2 ... Principles of Main Memory Data in SAP HANA and TREX ... 665
  • 15.2.1 ... Column-Based Data Storage ... 667
  • 15.2.2 ... Data Compression ... 668
  • 15.2.3 ... Data Storage in Main Memory ... 672
  • 15.2.4 ... Partitioning and Parallelization ... 675
  • 15.2.5 ... Indexing ... 676
  • 15.2.6 ... Data Modeling from a Performance View ... 679
  • 15.3 ... Overview of the SAP HANA Architecture and Sizing ... 681
  • 15.3.1 ... SAP HANA Architecture ... 681
  • 15.3.2 ... Sizing ... 685
  • 15.3.3 ... SAP HANA Administration Tools ... 687
  • 15.4 ... Technical Optimization Options in Detail ... 690
  • 15.4.1 ... Main Memory Analysis ... 690
  • 15.4.2 ... Identifying and Analyzing Expensive SQL Statements ... 698
  • 15.4.3 ... Creating Indexes (Inverted Index and Concatenated Index) ... 707
  • 15.4.4 ... Administration of Delta Indexes ... 710
  • 15.4.5 ... Load Distribution, Parallelization, and Partitioning ... 715
  • 15.4.6 ... Optimization of InfoCubes and DataStore Objects for SAP HANA ... 717
  • 15.5 ... Summary ... 721
  • ... Appendix ... 725
  • A ... Database Monitors ... 727
  • A.1 ... SAP MaxDB ... 732
  • A.2 ... Sybase ASE ... 740
  • A.3 ... IBM DB2 for Linux, UNIX, and Windows ... 746
  • A.4 ... IBM DB2 for IBM i ... 753
  • A.5 ... IBM DB2 for z/OS ... 760
  • A.6 ... Oracle ... 767
  • A.7 ... Microsoft SQL Server ... 771
  • B ... Selected Transaction Codes ... 777
  • C ... Review Questions and Answers ... 781
  • C.1 ... Questions on Chapter 2, Monitoring Hardware, Databases, and ABAP Application Server ... 781
  • C.2 ... Questions on Chapter 3, Workload Analysis ... 781
  • C.3 ... Questions on Chapter 4, Identifying Performance Problems in ABAP Programs ... 782
  • C.4 ... Questions on Chapter 5, Hardware Sizing and System and Load Distribution ... 782
  • C.5 ... Questions on Chapter 6, Memory Management ... 783
  • C.6 ... Questions on Chapter 7, Workload Distribution and Remote Function Calls ... 783
  • C.7 ... Questions on Chapter 8, SAP GUI and Internet Connection ... 783
  • C.8 ... Questions on Chapter 9, Locks ... 784
  • C.9 ... Questions on Chapter 10, Optimizing Java Virtual Machine and Java Programs ... 784
  • C.10 ... Questions on Chapter 11, Optimizing SQL Statements ... 785
  • C.11 ... Questions on Chapter 12, SAP Buffering ... 785
  • C.12 ... Questions on Chapter 13, Optimizing Queries in SAP NetWeaver Business Warehouse ... 785
  • C.13 ... Questions on Chapter 14, Optimizing Search Queries Using TREX ... 786
  • C.14 ... Questions on Chapter 15, Optimizing Database Queries with SAP HANA ... 786
  • D ... Glossary ... 787
  • E ... Sources of Information ... 799
  • F ... The Author ... 815
  • ... Index ... 817



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Product Reviews


  1. Wonderful book on performance tuning

    Posted by Soma on Nov 19th, 2013

    A good reference book for A to Z on performance tuning.


  2. Posted by Anonymous on Oct 29th, 2013

    This book is necessary for every SAP Basis Administrator


  3. Nice Book

    Posted by Ahmed on Oct 21st, 2013

    Every Basis consultant should have this book.


  4. Must Have

    Posted by Anonymous on Oct 8th, 2013

    Well written, Must have for BASIS Consultants.
    Includes Hana as well


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